Transposing music is a professional technique that many musicians use - more often than other vocalists and their accompanists. Quite often, singing numbers in transport is asked by solfeggio.
In this article, we will look at three main ways of transposing notes, in addition, we will derive such rules that help in the practical transposition of songs and other musical works from the sheet.
What is transposition? In transferring music to another tessitura, in other frames of the sound range, in other words, in transferring to another height, to a new tonality.
Why is all this necessary? For ease of execution. For example, in a song there are high notes that are difficult for a vocalist to sing, then a slight decrease in tonality helps to sing at a more comfortable height without straining because of these high sounds. In addition, the transposition of music pursues a number of practical purposes, for example, not to do without it when reading scores.
So, we proceed to the next question - methods of transposition. Exists Three basic transpose methods:
1) transposition at a given interval;
2) replacement of key marks;
3) replacement key.
Consider them on a specific example. Take for experiment the famous song "A Christmas Tree was born in the forest", and we will carry out its transport in different tones. The original version in the key of A major:
First way - transpose the notes at a given interval up or down. Everything should be clear here - each sound of the melody is transferred to a specific interval up or down, as a result of which the song sounds in a different key.
For example, move the song from the original key to a large third down. By the way, you can immediately identify a new key and set its key signs: this will be in F major. How to learn a new tonality? Yes, all the same - knowing the tonic of the original tonality, just transpose it to a large third down. A large third down from la - la-fa, so we get that the new tonality is nothing but F major. Here's what we got:
Second way - replacement of key signs. It is convenient to use this method when you need to transpose music a semitone higher or lower, and the semitone should be chromatic (for example, before and before sharp, and not before and d-flat; fa and f-sharp, but not fa and sol-flat ).
With this method, the notes remain in their places without change, only the signs at the key are rewritten. Here, for example, how we can rewrite our song from the key of A major to the key of A flat major:
One should make a reservation about this method. The case concerns random characters. In our example, they are not, but if they were, then the following transposition rules would be connected:
a) If we transpose up to half a tone, then random sharps turn into double sharps, bechars into sharps, flat into bekars, and then double-flat into ordinary flat. I think the principle is clear - we simply increase the random sign itself to a semitone.
b) If we transpose down to the chromatic semitone, then random doubles sharps go down to sharps, sharps go to bekars, bekars become bemoles, and well bemoles - double bems. Also, I think, the principles of change were caught - lowering the mark by half a tone and that's it.
Third way - replacement keys. In fact, in addition to the keys, you will also have to replace key signs, so this method could be called combined. What is being done here? Again, do not touch the notes - where they are written, in the same place, on the same lines will remain. Only in new keys on these rulers other notes are written - that’s convenient for us. See how I, changing the key from the violin to bass and alto, easily transfer the “Fir-trees” melody in the key to C major and B flat major:
In conclusion, I would like to make some generalizations. Besides the fact that we figured out that there is a transposition of music and what methods of transposing notes eats, I want to give some more small practical recommendations:
- Always transport in the original version - determine the tone, the reference steps, the structure of the melody, the movement of the sounds of chords, etc.
- Be sure to imagine the tone to which the transport is directed - immediately identify key signs and basic functions in it.
By the way, if you are still not very well versed in keys, then perhaps the article "How to remember key characters" will help you. Now that's it. Do not forget to click on the buttons under the title "I like it!" To share the material with friends!